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Furthermore, knowledge of the pre-settlement flora can improve the success of stream, wetland, and floodplain restoration because plant assemblages directly impact wetland and fluvial geomorphology and hydrology (Richardson et al., 2007; Macfall et al., 2014; Appendix 2). Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg.
Obligate and facultative-wetland species include willow (Salix spp.) and Hazel Alder (Alnus serrulata).
Box Elder (Acer negundo) is the only facultative species present, while American Beech (Fagus grandifolia), the white and red oak groups (Quercus Section Quercus and Q. Full-glacial upland tundra vegetation preserved under tephra in the Beringia National Park, Seward Peninsula, Alaska.
Presently, weedy and non-native vegetation dominate the altered riparian zones and hill slopes where old-growth, hardwood forests once prevailed.
Acceptance: 30 November 2015 Beginning in the seventeenth century, colonial activities such as land clearing, agriculture, and milldam construction significantly altered the landscapes, vegetation, and hydrogeomorphology of the northeastern Piedmont region, modern-day USA.
Ultimately, the increased distance to the water table, paired with the well-drained legacy sediments, excluded native wetland species whose roots could no longer reach the water table or extract moisture from the silty soils (Shafroth et al., 2002; Stanley and Doyle, 2003).